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An 'aftermarket' part is a part made by a company other than the vehicle manufacturer or the original equipment manufacturer.

Consumer Unit guide to the 17th edition Wiring Regulations - 1 - The Sparks Direct Blog

A 'recycled' part is a part that was made for and installed in a new vehicle by the manufacturer or the original equipment manufacturer, and later removed from the vehicle and made available for resale or reuse. Simply using an aftermarket or recycled part does not void your warranty. The Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act makes it illegal for companies to void your warranty or deny coverage under the warranty simply because you used an aftermarket or recycled part.

The manufacturer or dealer can, however, require consumers to use select parts if those parts are provided to consumers free of charge under the warranty. Still, if it turns out that the aftermarket or recycled part was itself defective or wasn't installed correctly, and it causes damage to another part that is covered under the warranty, the manufacturer or dealer has the right to deny coverage for that part and charge you for any repairs.

The FTC says the manufacturer or dealer must show that the aftermarket or recycled part caused the need for repairs before denying warranty coverage.


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Do I have to use the dealer for repairs and maintenance to keep my warranty in effect? Will using 'aftermarket' or recycled parts void my warranty? Tips To Avoid Warranty Issues. Tagged with: car , warranty. Related Items How to File a Complaint. Standard sizes have a conductor cross sectional area of 1, 1.

Sizes of 1 or 1. The earthing conductor is uninsulated since it is not intended to have any voltage difference from surrounding earthed articles. Additionally, if the insulation of a line or neutral wire becomes damaged, then the wire is more likely to earth itself on the bare earth conductor and in doing so either trip the RCD or burn the fuse out by drawing too much current. Earthing and Bonding are used together to provide shock protection by avoiding a dangerous combination of magnitude and duration of the voltage to which people may be exposed in the event of a fault within the installation or outside the installation.

Exposure may be from e. Examples of faults are an insulation failure between a line conductor and a metallic frame of an appliance within the installation, a break in a combined protective-earth and neutral conductor in the supply, or an insulation fault in the supply transformer causing the whole low-voltage system to rise in potential. In the event of an insulation fault from a live conductor to an appliance's metal frame an ECP , the frame could—if not so connected—be dangerous if touched by someone who is also for example standing outside on the ground, or standing inside on a concrete floor, or holding a tap whose pipe connects it electrically into the ground.

Protective earthing limits the combination of magnitude and duration of the dangerous voltage that could exist between the ECP and the earth itself. In conventional installations in the UK the voltage between an appliance frame and the earth itself during a zero-impedance fault has a dangerous magnitude: it might be reduced to about half of the V line-earth voltage, which is well above the 50 V usually accepted as safe for an ac system, or it might be nearly V in a TT system with a poor earth electrode for the installation.

The duration of this voltage must therefore be limited, which is done by "automatic disconnection of supply" ADS either by overcurrent protection devices OCPDs , or by residual current devices RCDs that specifically detect the current escaping from the intended circuit, allowing them to have a far lower tripping current.

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In TT systems it is almost always necessary to have an RCD, as earth electrodes usually have many times higher resistance than a typical supply cable, so earth-fault currents are relatively low. In the TN-S or TN-C-S systems none of the "earth fault" current necessarily passes through the earth, as there is a metallic circuit for the entire earth-fault loop: adequate ADS times may often be achieved by normal OCPDs However, the connection to the earth itself is always relevant, since the earth forms a mildly conductive surface that we cannot easily avoid e.

In TT systems the installation's earth electrode needs to have low enough impedance to operate protection if a safe voltage usually taken as 50 V between the installation and remote earth is exceeded; in TN systems the system's neutral point needs a low resistance connection to earth to prevent a fault between a line conductor and some unintended earth electrode from displacing the neutral-point potential to a dangerous level compared to the earth. Bonding is the connection of conductive parts together, to reduce the voltage between them.

This is an important measure for electric shock protection. When this protective function is the purpose of bonding, BS describes the bonding by the term "protective equipotential bonding"; this does not mean that the bonding guarantees perfect equipotentiality, but just that it reduces the differences of potential. In the following, this formal term is abbreviated to "bonding". Without adequate bonding, dangerous voltages could arise between conductive parts that can be touched simultaneously, either due to problems outside the installation, or to faults in the installation.

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These parts could otherwise introduce potentials that are different from the potential of the installation's earthing system. The main bonding avoids dangerous differences in potential being introduced into the installation, between e. Supplementary bonding connects simultaneously touchable conductive parts in local parts of an installation: the parts may be pairs of ECPs on different circuits, or an ECP and extraneous conductive parts. This reduces the voltage between them, even in fault conditions.


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Supplementary bonding is particularly used in situations such as bathrooms, where body resistance is low and therefore requires magnitude and duration of touch voltages to be very limited. In special circumstances not domestic installations bonding with deliberate lack of connection to earth earth free local equipotential bonding may be used. In recent US practice, which differs considerably from IEC principles and terminology, "bonding" is used more widely as a term for all the aspects of earthing that are not literally connections with the earth itself "grounding" ; so the connection of protective earth conductors to the supply neutral since the TN-C-S system is the only permitted form in their residential installations is now named bonding rather than earthing.

This is not the case in the UK.

A domestic supply typically consists of a large cable connected to a service head, the sealed box containing the main supply fuse, treated as the supply to the premises. Separate line and neutral cables tails go from here to an electricity meter , and often an earth conductor too. More tails proceed from the meter into the consumer side of the installation and into a consumer unit distribution board , or in some cases to a Henley block a splitter box used in low voltage electrical engineering, slang named for W.

The distribution board aka fusebox contains one or more main switches and an individual fuse or miniature circuit breaker MCB for each final circuit. In a UK-style board, breaker positions are numbered top to bottom in the left-hand column, then top to bottom in the right column. Three phase power is usually supplied as needed, for commercial and industrial premises. While three phase loads take balanced power from the three phases, any single phase loads are distributed to ensure equal loading of the three phases.

Each row of breakers in the distribution board is fed from a different phase L1, L2, and L3 , to allow 3-pole common-trip breakers to have one pole on each phase.


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  7. Single-pole switches are most commonly used to control circuits. These switches isolate only the line conductor feeding the load and are used for lighting and other smaller loads.

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    For larger loads like air conditioners , cookers, water heaters and other fixed appliances a double-pole switch is used, which isolates also the neutral, for more safety. A three-pole isolator or circuit breaker is used for three-phase loads, and also at the distribution board to isolate all the phases as well as the neutral.

    Many accessories for electrical installations e. Accessories in the BS format are only available in a comparatively limited range of designs and lack the product diversity and design sophistication found in other European markets. The UK installation-accessory industry is therefore occasionally criticised for being overly conservative.

    For higher currents or three-phase supplies, IEC sockets are to be used instead. Flexible appliance cords require protection at a lower current than that provided by the ring circuit overcurrent protection device. In the case of permanently connected equipment, a fused connection unit to BS is used, this may include an isolator switch and a neon bulb to indicate if the equipment is powered.

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    Note, it is not intended that the fuse should protect the appliance itself, for which it is still necessary for the appliance designer to take the necessary precautions. Multiple socket accessories may be protected with a fuse within the socket assembly. The selection of conductors must be made taking into consideration both the maximum voltage drop allowed at the load end and also the current carrying capacity of the conductor.

    Conductor size and voltage drop tables are available to determine the selection, which will be based on the load current supplied. The choice of circuit breaker is also based on the normal rated current of the circuit. Modern circuit breakers have overload and short circuit current protection combined.

    The overload protection is for protection of the equipment against sustained small-to-medium increase in current above the rated current, while short circuit protection is for the protection of the conductors against high over-currents due to short circuits. For domestic circuits the following choices are typically adopted for selecting conductor and circuit breaker sizes. For distribution boards the incomer circuit breaker rating depends on the current demand at that board. For this the maximum demand and diversity is taken into consideration based on which the probable current is calculated.

    Diversity is the condition that all appliances are not likely to be working all at the same time or at their maximum ratings. From this the maximum demand is calculated and the currents are added to determine the load current and hence the rating of the circuit breaker. IEE recommends these current demands and diversity factors for various loads to determine the load current and rating of overcurrent protective device.